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舊 2008-09-12, 10:33   #1
Mike
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Ski Instructor Qualification

For those who would like to gain Ski instructor qualification eg. CSIA, PSIA etc, the following link provides an insight of different qualifications:

http://winterwonderings.blogspot.com...1_archive.html

Quote:
"In general, there are three or four tiers of qualifications for ski or snowboard instructors. There are also separate schemes for coaching (race or freestyle). Each country has it's own instructors' organisation (or sometimes more than one. In addition, the ISIA exists to oversee the national organisations and allow the exchange of ideas.

Firstly then, abbreviations for the various instructing organisations you may see -

BASI - British Associoation of Snowsport Instructors
CSIA - Canadian Ski Instructors Alliance
CASI - Canadian Association of Snowboard Instructors
ISIA - International Ski Intructors Association
NZSIA - New Zealand Snowsport Instructors Association
PSIA - Professional Ski Instructors of America

So what are the levels and how do they compare? The following lists start with the most basic qualifications and work up to the most advanced, with Coaching qualifications tagged on the end. The list is not exhaustive, but hopefully it may clarify some confusion over the long list of instructor qualifications in existance. The qualifications listed under each heading may be considered roughly equivalent to one another, although the details will vary.

Foundation Level (able to teach beginners up to snowplough turns, including artificial slope qualifications)
BASI Level 1 Instructor (Formerly Foundation or Trainee), CSIA 1, NZSIA CSI, PSIA 1, ASSI

Instructor Level (able to teach parallel turns and beyond. Requires a good level of personal skiing and teaching)
BASI Level 2 Instructor (Formerly Instructor or Grade 3), CSIA 2, NZSIA 1, PSIA 2

ISIA Level (Internationally recognised standard. International minimum standards. Able to teach to a high level. Requires a high level of personal skiing and teaching. Should include off-piste awareness and a coaching element)
BASI Ski Teacher ISIA (formerly Grade 2), CSIA 3, NZSIA 2, PSIA 3, French Stagiere

ISTD or National Level (Highest level certification. Eurogroup recognition. Requires a very high level of personal skiing and teaching)
BASI ISTD (International Ski Teacher Diploma, formerly Grade 1), French National Diploma, Austrian National Diploma

Coaching Qualifications (Not strictly instructing qualifiacations, these are for race coaches etc.)
APC 1, APC 2, CSCF 1, CSCF 2 and others.


Good luck :)

此篇文章於 2008-09-12 12:34 被 Mike 編輯。. 原因: Typo
Mike 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2008-09-12, 12:35   #2
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The requirements for becoming a Ski Coach differ slightly from Europe to North America. The requirements for both continents are described here:

Europe
There are two levels that are awarded in the UK, namely Artificial Slopes Performance, in short ASP or also ASPC, and the normal coach level. ASP entails the training of skiers on artificial hills, while the normal coaching involves the training of racers to become professional skiers and to compete in events.

The ESC award is the highest level in Europe. If you have this level of qualification, you can obtain a license to train your own skiers. Apart from being a certified ski coach, you may also apply to be registered as a tutor that qualifies you to deliver certain ski courses.

Other requirements include being older than 18 years, being registered with the European country ski licensing authority where you plan to coach. You must either have a BASI level 3 certification, or a certified artificial slope coach, with one month's snow coach work experience, or being a racer with a point value of less than 80.
Apart from this, you must also attend a recognized first aid course and a week ASP course. Once you have passed the test and have gained practical experience while working with skiers for a specified time, you are required to submit your qualifications, proof of courses attended, and experience to the ESC for approval. You will then receive ASP certification. Once you have this, you can become a full ski coach.

Other requirements are:
You need to be a certified ASP coach
Must be at least 21 years old
Must have a minimum of 42 days coach experience on snow
Must be a registered ASSI
Have attended a 14 day European ski coach course
After the assessment course you will be awarded certification as a development coach.
You are then required to apply for licensing to be able act as ski coach for club members for international events.
If you finish the tutor course you may also register as tutor on a higher level.

Requirements for becoming a ski coach on race level are:
Must have ASP and ASSI certification
Must have completed the Alpine course of level 1 plus 2, which qualifies you as an APC level 2 coach.
Once you are registered as a race coach you may apply for licensing to be able to coach your club members in other countries on snow.
Once you have completed the level 3 of the performance course, you may register as a tutor on that level.

North America
The United States Ski Coach Association provides training for coaches. There are also three levels which are known as:
Alpine pre-course level 1
National Alpine Coach (NAC) level 2
US Ski Coach Association Accreditation level 3

Level 1
Must attend a 2 day lecturing course and practical exercises

Level 2
Must attend an 8 day ski course of lectures
You must already have a first aid course certificate
Must already have an referee certification
Must already have completed the coaching effectiveness course

Level 3
Complete the certification examination process over a 3 day period
You must already be 21 years or older
At least 3 years experience
Must be qualified on level 2
Must already have completed the NAC course
Must have certification on a minimum of 3 ACEP level 2 courses

Become a Master
The master ski coach entails a practical period with the United States of America's ski team.
Mike 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2008-09-12, 14:42   #3
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I heard China have 4 levels. The highest being National Level.

i love line graphics
carver_hk-ski 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2008-09-18, 14:45   #4
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How about the ski instructor qualification in Korea and Japan?
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舊 2010-08-08, 15:24   #5
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Ski instructor qualification - PSIA

Just came across on the process for PSIA qualification:

In order to be PSIA qualified, one must join PSIA.
Then take their Level 1 exam. Level one was a two day exam and considered not too difficult.
After that take their Level 2 exam, which is a three day written and a practical exam. Level 2 is considerably more difficult.
Finally, one must study for and take their Level 3 exam, which is a five day exam, divided into a three day skiing exam and a two day written and ski teaching exam. This is considered extremely difficult.

The whole process typically takes at least 4-5 years.
In between the exams are training requirements, requirements for specified hours of teaching experience, teaching clinics, and written confirmation of having met these requirements by your ski school director. Its not an easy processAlso keep in mind that the instructor must pay to take each exam, while also paying their yearly PSIA fees.

http://www.psia-e.org/ed/alpine/AlpineExamGuide.pdf


George might have something to add.

此篇文章於 2012-05-27 11:11 被 Mike 編輯。. 原因: Rename title of thread
Mike 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2010-08-09, 12:39   #6
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BASI

For BASI qualification:

Before applying for an Alpine Level 1 Instructor course, students must:
•Be able to ski parallel confidently, coping with a variety of conditions and have completed at least 16 weeks of skiing.
•Be able to ski parallel confidently on red runs, making rhythmical turns close to the fall line at a steady pace.
•Have an understanding of Client care

Pre-requisites
The following pre-requisites must be met before attending an Alpine Level 1 Instructor course.
Students must:
•Complete the declaration on the booking form and return it to the BASI office.
•Join BASI as an Associate Member

Alpine Level 1 Instructor qualification consists of the following modules;
•Safeguarding Children Module
•First Aid Certificate
•Technical and Teaching Training & Assessment Module
•35 Logged Hours
•Safe Guarding Children

First Aid
First Aid certificate needs to be issued by an organisation recognised by the Health and Safety Executive.
The course must be a minimum of 2 days or 12hrs long.

35 Logged Hours Ski School Experience
A total of 35 hours minimum of teaching/ski school experience is part of the Level 1 Instructor training course.
Teaching Ski School experience may include any of the following:
Understanding how bookings are taken and how people are selected into different standards
Shadowing experienced Instructors delivering lessons
Delivering lessons as per the constraints for the Level 1 Licence
Understanding how customer satisfaction is assessed and how dissatisfied customers are dealt with
Understanding how the Customer satisfaction procedures improve Instructor and administrational practises
Taking part in and understanding in house staff training for Instructors
Understanding how Snowsports Schools maintain Safety standards and maintain their currency of good practise
Understanding the Risk Assessment process that Snowsport Schools and Instructors take
Understand Accident and First Aid procedures including accident reporting

Students should provide a breakdown in writing of what they have covered during their Ski School experience and this should be signed by the Ski School supervisor.

Outcomes
Successful students will be issued a certification to work only on dry slope or indoor snow slopes. Students will be able to work with novice and early intermediate skiers. On completion of the Level 1 Instructor course students are individually debriefed and advised on the degree of preparation required before presenting themselves for the Level 2 Instructor Training Course, as well as to their competence to work in the controlled environments of dry slopes and Snow-domes.

Level 1 Course Completion
Alpine Level 1 Instructor licence can only be issued to a student who has fulfilled the following conditions.
The student must:
•Have completed and passed all aspects of Alpine Level 1 Instructor training.
•Hold a current First Aid certificate issued by an organisation recognised by the Health and Safety Executive. The course must be a minimum of 2 days long or 12hrs duration.
•Have paid the current subscription fee.
•Have completed the Safeguarding Children Module.
•Have logged 35 hours teaching/ski school experience.
•Forward a copy of your disclosure certificate to BASI office.

此篇文章於 2012-07-08 13:43 被 Mike 編輯。. 原因: Typo
Mike 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2010-08-09, 12:44   #7
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For BASI Level 2 qualification:

Entry Criteria
Students should arrive with an understanding of both the technical and teaching philosophy of BASI. Assessment will be continuous. The course content will be based on the current Alpine Level 2 Instructor Course outcomes and will include on and off snow activities.

Pre-requisites
The following pre-requisites must be met before attending an Alpine Level 2 Instructor course.
Students must have:
•Successful completion of the Alpine Level 1 Instructor Qualification
•Valid first aid and emergency certificate
•An additional 35 hours of shadow teaching is required between completion of the Alpine Level 1 Instructor course and application for the Alpine Level 2 Instructor course.
•Attended refresher course every 3 years
(Important Note: 2nd 35 logged hours. BASI recommend shadow teaching hours, although this is a guideline).

Training synopsis
Alpine Level 2 Instructor Qualification consists of the following module;
•Technical and Teaching Training & Assessment

Outcome
Successful students will be able to ski to a competent level, and have the knowledge, ability and understanding to safely teach alpine skiing up to and including parallel standard on marked pistes. Individuals who do not reach the required level may be required to resit all or part of the course.

Certification and Issue of Alpine Level 2 Instructor Licence
A licence, which is renewable annually, can only be issued to a student who has fulfilled the following conditions.
The student must:
•Have successfully completed the Alpine Level 1 Instructor Qualification
•Have successfully completed both modules of the Alpine Level 2 Instructor Training course
•Be a minimum of 16 years old
•Hold a current First Aid certificate issued by an organization recognised by the Health and Safety Executive. The course must be a minimum of two days long / 12 hours duration
•Have paid the current full subscription fee
•Have 70 hours ski-school experience (note: 35hrs of these 70hrs relate to the Level 1 Instructor)
•Have attended a revalidation/refresher course every 3 years unless they have attended another BASI on snow training course
•Forward a copy of your disclosure certificate to BASI office.

此篇文章於 2010-08-13 20:15 被 Mike 編輯。. 原因: Typo
Mike 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2010-08-09, 12:51   #8
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For BASI Level 3 qualification:

Training synopsis
Ski Teacher (ISIA), consists of the following training modules:
•Common Theory
•Technical Training & Assessment
•Teaching Training & Assessment
•BASI Mountain Safety
•Alpine Development Coach or Alpine Freestyle Development Coach L1 & 2
•Sports coach UK Modules
•Second Language
•Second Discipline
In order to give students more support and direction before they embark on the highest level courses, the Common Theory course will now act as an introductory course, coming in before the Technical and Teaching module. BASI strongly recommend that this module is completed first but this is not mandatory. The focus of the Common Theory course will be on providing the tools required to deal with the elite performance necessary for Ski Teacher standards. This will include a Sports Psychology presentation, including tactics for dealing with stress during performance and development of endurance.

Pre-requisites
•Alpine Level 2 Instructor certificate
•Attended a refresher training course in the last 3 years
•200 logged teaching hours
•Valid first aid and emergency procedure certificate
NOTE: The 200 logged signed teaching hours must have been completed between successful completion of the Level 2 Instructor course and commencement of the Technical or Teaching modules of the Ski Teacher (ISIA) course.

BASI Mountain Safety
This is a 6 day on-snow training and assessment course, complemented with lectures and seminars. It provides the student with a better understanding of the mountains to ensure the safety of skiers off piste as well as on marked runs. On completion of the course, students are expected to assess the dangers of off piste situations and reach the appropriate decisions.
The course content includes the following:
•Snow and avalanche technique
•Off piste ski technique
•Equipment for ski mountaineering and off piste skiing
•Map reading, navigation and route selection
•Objective hazards and action in the event of an emergency
•Conduct of a group in descent

Common Theory, course content includes:
Snowsports Medicine
This section will focus on the prevention and management of injury plus altitude and hypothermia considerations. It will include consideration of the structure and function of the knee joint with aspects of alignment.

Nutrition and Hydration
This section will consider appropriate strategies to support training and performance, including the effect of dehydration and low blood sugar on motor coordination.

Snowsports Bio mechanics
This practical and seminar section deals with exploring the fundamentals of body management and analysing technique based on a deeper understanding of how the body works. This will be largely practical work on balance and input movements. Emphasis is placed on improving observation and mechanical reasoning skills.

Snowsports Psychology and Social Psychology
This section considers how to get the best performance out of yourself, your clients and your co-workers. Specific aspects will include group dynamics, coping with assessments and advanced teaching methods.

Snowsports Physiology
The main foci are practical physical preparation and fitness, in particular strength and conditioning for high performance skiing relating to personal `action plans` and advising recreational clients. There will be accompanying theory and additional materials on the science of warm-up, flexibility and muscle soreness.

Planning and Lifestyle
This section will consider personal and group / team annual planning, long term development, climate setting and the role of peer groups.

Professional Ethics
This section will consider the legal requirements, liability issues and roles, responsibilities for working in Snowsports within the UK and abroad.

Alpine Development Coach Level 1&2 or Alpine Freestyle Development Coach Level 1&2

Students must complete the following two Sports coach UK Modules:
Introduction to Structure of the Body - Understanding the structure of the body is essential if you are to teach correct technique, develop effective training programmes and minimise the risk of injury. This home study pack will make you more effective at all these essential coaching tasks. Exercises will help you learn the structure and functions of the skeleton, the muscles and the joints. Practical tasks will assist you in applying this knowledge to the analysis of techniques and the development of training programmes specific to your sport.
Contents:
How the Muscles Move
Muscle in Action
The Performer in Action
Main Muscle Groups

Introduction to Sports Physiology - A knowledge of how the body functions during exercise will enhance your coaching. It will help you to understand exactly what you are asking your performers to do. This pack is written to help sports coaches understand performance. It describes how energy is created and used in the muscle, how the physiological demands of your sport can be assessed, and how to devise training programmes that meet the specific needs of your performers. This information will help you to devise more effective training programmes and sessions.
Contents:
Overview of the Oxygen Transport System
Coping with Exercise
Training Oxygen Transport and Utilisation
Energy

Second Discipline
The ISIA minimum standards require a second discipline as part of the qualification. As of May 2006 completion of the Level 1 Instructor course in any of the BASI Disciplines is the minimum standard for this requirement.

200 Teaching Hours
The 200 logged signed teaching hours must have been completed between successful completion of the Level 2 Instructor course and commencement of the Technical or Teaching modules of the Ski Teacher (ISIA) course. Hours must be submitted to the BASI office 2 weeks prior to attending these modules.

Second Language
The time of old workbooks is over! The second language test is now a verbal test aiming at assessing BASI members' communication skills in French, German, Spanish and Italian. The assessor will be bilingual or/and have a degree in the chosen language to be tested. However if you have a grade B in a foreign modern language at GCSE or higher you can forward a copy of your certificate to BASI by 1st January 2010 to gain exemption from this test.

Outcome
On successful completion of all training, students will have developed their technical competence and understanding of the underlying principles of ski teaching. The Ski Teacher (ISIA) licence qualifies the student to teach up to parallel skiing and beyond. This includes techniques and tactics for bumps, steeper terrain, higher speeds and variable conditions within marked pistes and off piste on marked routes. Individuals may be required to resit all or part of the modules.

Certification and Issue of Ski Teacher (ISIA) Licence
Ski Teacher (ISIA) licence, which is renewable annually, can only be issued to a student who has fulfilled the following conditions.
The student must:
•Have completed and passed all aspects of Ski Teacher (ISIA) training.
•Hold a current First Aid certificate issued by an organisation recognised by the Health and Safety Executive. The course must be a minimum of 2 days long or 14hrs long.
•Have paid the current subscription fee.
•Have attended refresher training or another BASI training course.
Mike 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2010-08-09, 13:06   #9
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Then there is the BASI Level 4 qualification:
This is the highest level - International Ski Teacher Diploma

Pre Requisites
•Ski Teacher ISIA Certificate
•Attended refresher training or another BASI course
•200 Logged Teaching hours
•Valid first aid and emergency procedure certificate

Training Synopsis
•Technical Training & Assessment
•Teaching Training & Assessment
•European Mountain Security
•European Speed Test
•Research Project
•Interview

European Speed Test
The Euro Speed Test is an integral part of the training of Ski Instructors in France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Austria and the UK. The test is part of the International Ski Teacher Diploma, BASI’s highest level of qualification. The test is run to strict rules on an international basis and validated by the State in which the test is held.

Requirements for all Eurotests
Length of Ski: 185cm +/- 5cm (male), 180 +/- 5cm (female)
Minimum turning radius (male and female): 21m

The test is a giant slalom run within FIS Regulations. Openers will have been calibrated at the start of the season and will each be issued with a coefficient for adjusting their times to 0 points. The openers will set a base time which is adjusted using the coefficient for each opener to 0 FIS points, the pass standard for men will be 0 FIS points + 18% and for women will be 0 FIS + 24%.

European Mountain Security
This course is in two parts. The first is a four day training period which will have a maximum of 6 students per group. The second part of this module will be a 3-day assessment with a maximum of 4 students per group.

Pre Requisites
Between attending the 4-day training and the 3-day assessment courses, students must have completed a minimum of 6 days of quality day-touring where students have been practising the role of leading, decision making and navigation. Map reading, snow profiling, transceiver searching and the use of ropes must already be very competent.

There will be a written paper on:
•Knowledge of safety
•Off-piste skiing
•Mountain weather and environment

There will be a practical test on:
Preparation for and carrying out an off-piste itinerary
•Appropriate route selection
•Assessment of hazardous terrain, snow stability, slope profiles, etc
•Appropriate actions in an emergency/avalanche situation

Qualification Limitations
The European Mountain Security module (EMS) represents the minimum level of skill and competency to lead and teach people skiing and snowboarding whilst off-piste. This includes outside patrolled and controlled areas of a ski area. The module is designed to meet the needs of Snowsport Instructors who are normally leading short (1-day) local (near controlled ski areas) routes. BASI strongly recommends that you consolidate these skills and competencies by gaining substantial additional relevant experience and practise before taking responsibility for others in a leading role off-piste.
The EMS does not provide the skills to lead on routes which will include the use of crampons, ice axes, ropes or encounters on-glaciated terrain. When students have paid the deposit for this module they will be sent a copy of their workbook for the course. It is essential to attend the course with the workbook. If students arrive without the workbook, they will be charged for a second copy.

Research Project
Students are required to submit a research project. It will be marked on the following areas, length (3,000 to 4,000 words), bibliography, quality of print, grammar, presentation, layout, drawings/diagrams, research, accuracy, originality, personalisation and conclusion. The subject matter for your project needs to relate to the Snowsport industry, but it also needs to be something that would be useful for your peers to read and should relate in some way to the profession of Snowsport teaching.

200 Logged, signed Teaching Hours

This is a prerequisite for attending the teaching and technical modules. Each student must complete 200 logged teaching hours, which must be submitted to the BASI office a minimum of 10 working days before the technical or teaching modules start date. Logged hours must be signed off by the relevant ski/snowboard school manager.

Interview
Students are to attend a final interview on completion of all the above modules.

Outcome
On successful completion of the International Ski Teacher Diploma training and assessment modules, students are qualified to the level required for mutual recognition in France, Austria and Italy. Students intending to work in these countries will still be required to apply and register to work in accordance with the relevant national authorities. The International Ski Teacher Diploma licence qualifies the student to teach up to parallel skiing and beyond. This includes techniques and tactics for bumps, steeper terrain, higher speeds and variable conditions within the marked pistes and off piste apart from on glaciated terrain.

Certification and Issue of International Ski Teacher Diploma Licence
An International Ski Teacher Diploma licence, which is renewable annually, can only be issued to a student who has fulfilled the following conditions.
The students must:
•Have completed and passed all modules of the International Ski Teacher Diploma training
•Hold a current First Aid certificate issued by an organisation recognised by the Health and Safety Executive. The course must be a minimum of 2 days long or 14hrs duration.
•Have paid the current subscription fee
•Have attended refresher training or another BASI course
•Be 21 years of age or older
•Forward a copy of your disclosure certificate, if you have not already done so.
Exemptions
Any student wishing to apply for exemption from any aspect of the training, at any level, must submit an application to the Training and/or Operations Manager of BASI office.

Applying for Equivalence & Carte Professional
Once you have finished your full ISTD qualification, the first step to being able to work in France is applying for your Attestation d’Equivalence (Dossier de Candidature)
Mike 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2010-08-24, 09:47   #10
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This is the Japanese Ski Instructors Association website for those who can read Japanese:

http://www.sia-japan.or.jp/
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舊 2010-12-29, 07:31   #11
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CSIA Level 1, 2 & 3

For CSIA (Level 1) - The CSIA Level 1 Course is an introduction to ski teaching. There are two main sections in the course which you must pass both in order to become certified which are the skills and the teaching components for teaching beginner to early intermediate skiers.

http://www.snowpro.com/docs/en/CSIA_...urse_Guide.pdf

CSIA (Level 2) - CSIA Level 2 works on your more advanced skiing skills and the teaching techniques for intermediate skiers. Level 2 examinations are demanding and will require dedicated focus and commitment throughout the 11-weeks course programme.

http://www.snowpro.com/docs/en/CSIA_...urse_Guide.pdf

CSIA (Level 3) - The Level 3 ski instructor certification is for advanced skiers that have passed the Level 2 certification. It enables instructors to improve their situational teaching skills, to acquire a better understanding of CSIA technique and methodology, and the role of ski teaching within the ski industry, as well as introduce instructor training. It combines practical ski teaching methods, technical understanding and development, and improvement of guest service skills.
Candidates will receive coaching on their skiing, teaching and people skills with the goal of reaching the Level 3 standard. The successful candidate is certified to teach skiers up to advanced parallel skill level. Level 3 is a pre-requisite for the Level 4 certification.
The level 3 Certified Ski Instructor course is an advanced training certification. It includes:
◦ development of strategies for effective communication, group dynamics, lesson planning and
◦ skill drill matching
◦ training in strategies to perfect and refine skiing skills for advanced skiers
◦ skiing and teaching methodology of advanced terrain (moguls)
◦ development of methods for effective analysis and development
◦ a workshops on mountain safety

http://www.snowpro.com/docs/en/CSIA_...urse_Guide.pdf

此篇文章於 2012-05-27 10:58 被 Mike 編輯。. 原因: Add links
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舊 2011-05-29, 19:41   #12
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CSIA Level 4 Senior Ski Instructor is an expert, internationally recognized course designed to develop the abilities of experienced instructors into trainers and leaders. It includes:
◦ developing techniques and strategies for teaching experts and develop instructors
◦ perfecting assessment and development skills at all levels of skiers and
◦ perfecting skiing and methodology on all terrain for all levels of skiers

http://www.snowpro.com/docs/en/CSIA_...urse_Guide.pdf

Course duration: 6 days + 4 separate days of exams
Prerequisites: CSIA Level 3 + CSCF Development Level (Trained) + 2 day GS module or
CSIA Level 3 + CSGA Pre-Course + 2 day GS module or
CSIA Level 3 + CSCF Entry Level (Trained)+ Snow Park certification + 2 day GS module
Exempted from taking the 2 days GS modules are: Members with Level 3 CSCF OR with 100 FIS points or less

The 2 days GS Module training camp is a prerequisite before registering for the Level 4 exams. The GS camp provides technical and tactical training in a race environment for instructors preparing for the Level 4 Exams. It is also available to all Level 3s interested in improving their GS skills. CSCF will provide coaching in a safe and fun environment. Helmets are mandatory. GS skis recommended but not mandatory.

The Bump Module is for those looking to improve their bump skiing and teaching. Participants will receive coaching in line interpretation, skill adaptation to the terrain and how to teach Intermediate to Advanced level skiers in the bumps. The one day module focuses mostly on ski improvement where the 2 day module maintains the ski improvement focus while adding methodology. The bump modules are perfect for those looking to improve their own skiing, gain insight into teaching in the bumps and/or prepare for the Level 3 certification.

The AST (Avalanche Skill Training) is the first avalanche course offered within the professional and recreational progression. It covers the basics in avalanche security that every back country adventurer should possess. This course is focused on demystifying the avalanche phenomenon and increases the awareness of the alpine environment during the winter period; whether you are snowshoeing, cross-country and alpine skiing, snowboarding or telemark.
In order to achieve the ISIA status the AST course or its equivalent is mandatory.

此篇文章於 2012-05-27 10:59 被 Mike 編輯。. 原因: Add link
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舊 2011-05-29, 19:54   #13
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PSIA Level 1

PSIA Level 1 Development and Assessment Tasks:

These tasks are designed to help instructors develop specific body movements that are integral to good skiing.

THE BASIC MOVEMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL SKIING
- Flexion and extension movements that affect the ankles, knees, hips and vertebrae are crucial to create and maintain dynamic balance over the entire foot in order to control pressure and manage terrain.
- The legs must be turned under the upper body for effective control of turn shape and in order to maintain balance. These movements are generated in the hip joint, but are apparent in the legs and feet, and resulting in a stable and quiet upper body.
- Balance is directed to the outside ski to effectively regulate and capitalize on external forces and turn the skis with strength and efficiency.
- Diagonal movements of the feet, legs and hips are used to smoothly engage and release the edges and to assure early edge engagement within the turn.
- The upper body and the pole swing are directed in a purposeful manner to flow with the skis through turns and from turn to turn. When a pole touch is appropriate, the timing of the touch must compliment the desired outcome.
- Speed control is a result of turn shape, and in general, speed should remain constant throughout an entire sequence of maneuvers.

Level 1 Tasks:
1. Wedge Change-Ups (Performed on gentle terrain with consistent pitch)
Beginning in a straight run, the skier simultaneously steers both legs into a wedge (converging relationship) and displace the feet and skis laterally away from each other directly under the skier’s center of mass. While maintaining forward momentum the skier will simultaneously steer both feet back underneath the center of mass so that the skis return to the parallel position the task began in. These two moves will be performed as many times as the terrain allows.
Task Criteria:
- Both skis are simultaneously steered into and out of the wedge
- The legs must be steered in equal proportions
- Skier maintains a center, balanced stance; hips should remain over the feet
- Skier should not turn
Skill Focus:
While maintaining a centered stance the skier should be able to steer the legs into a wedge and back into a parallel relationship with no turn shape. The skier must regulate edging and pressure control movements to maintain a constant speed and direction.

2. Foot Steered Turns (Performed on gentle terrain with a consistent pitch)
Starting from a narrow wedge initiate a slight turn by using simultaneous steering of both feet slightly across the fall line, then steer back across the fall line in the opposite direction. (These turns are very shallow) This will be repeated as many times as the terrain will allow.
Task Criteria:
- Direction change should come predominantly from foot steering, not by pressuring the outside ski
- Both feet should be steered simultaneously
- Skier maintains a centered, balanced stance; hips should remain over the feet
Skill Focus:
Steering both feet simultaneously while minimizing edge engagement will result in a steered turn.

3. Sideslips With A Stop (Performed on beginner terrain with a steeper pitch)
Starting from a standstill with the skis directly across the fall line, release the edges and slip sideways down the fall line for several yards. Re-engage the edges and stop. Repeat going the other direction. There is no pivot or turn in this task.
Task Criteria:
- The skis should slide directly down the fall line with minimal travel fore or aft - Edge release is accomplished via directed extension from the uphill foot and simultaneous tipping of both feet
- Edge engagement is accomplished by tipping the feet into the hill combined with a simultaneous
flexing of the ankles, knees and hips
- Skier shall maintain a balanced stance at all times
Skill Focus:
Simultaneous edging movements combined with a centered stance will allow for progressive movement
directly down the fall line.

4. Wedge Christie Garlands (Performed on green terrain)
The skier directs the skis to the fall line in a wedge position and returns to the traverse in a wedge Christie.
Repeated as per available terrain in both directions.
Task Criteria:
- The start of the garland must begin with a wedge, not a displacement of the uphill ski.
- The inside ski must be steered, not pulled, to parallel during the Christie portion of the garland.
- Continually start on opposing edges and ending on corresponding edges
Skill Focus:
A directed extension movement combined with active steering into the fall line from a wedge position occurs.
As the skier steers out of the fall line the inside ski steers at a faster pace to form a parallel position.

5. Stepping out of a Straight Run (Performed on gentle terrain)
Starting from a straight run, lift one foot completely off the snow, pivot the ski in the air until it is diverged slightly from the direction of travel, step back onto that divergent ski, lift the other ski completely off the snow, pivoting it in the air until it matches the first ski and then step back onto it. Repeat until both skis are out of the fall line and forward momentum has ceased.
Task Criteria:
- The skis must come completely off the snow
- The skier must maintain a centered and balanced stance throughout
- The weight transfer from ski to ski must be complete
- The deceleration and stop must come from the ski being stepped out of the fall line, not edging
movements. Some edging may be present to prevent slipping as the skier moves out of the fall line.
Skill Focus:
Lateral weight transfer will occur as the skier steps from one ski to the other. Steering will occur as the ski is diverged from the fall line while in the air.
Mike 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2011-05-29, 20:02   #14
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PSIA Level 2

PSIA Level 2 Development and Assessment Tasks:

Level 2 Tasks:
1. The Dynamic Wedge Turn (Performed on groomed green or groomed easy blue terrain)
The skier links medium radius carved wedge turns.
Task Criteria:
- The wedge size must remain consistent from start to stop.
- The turn radius must not vary (turn radius to be determined by exam team).
- Minimal skid is used and then only to maintain turn radius.
- The inside leg is actively steered to maintain the wedge.
Skill Focus:
-A carved turn is accomplished by edging and pressuring movements with the outside leg (edging movements).

2. The Modified Stem Christie (Performed on groomed green or blue terrain)
At turn initiation, the skier balances over the old outside ski while extending the new outside leg and stemming the new outside ski. The timing of the extension is slightly delayed in comparison to a traditional Stem Christy.
This achieves a progressive lengthening of the body as opposed to an early vertical extension. After the
extension movement the skier actively transfers weight to the new outside ski and begins to (relatively quickly) steer the inside ski to a parallel position. The turn progresses naturally to the fall line at which point the skier begins to flex and shape the bottom of the turn.
If a pole touch is required (as is likely), the pole swing is timed with the extension/stem movements and the touch is timed with the weight transfer to the new outside ski.
Note: The “stem” may be either a classic stem, in which the ski remains on the snow, or a step, in which the ski is picked up and placed at the desired angle.
Task Criteria:
- The stem occurs with a deliberate extension of the new outside leg.
- Weight transfer and match happen as a continuous, fluid movement.
- Edge change of the inside ski occurs after weight is transferred to the outside ski.
Skill Focus:
- Directional Movement (balance).

3. Outside Ski Turns (Performed on groomed blue terrain)
The skier performs a short to medium radius turn (to defined by examiner) while completely lifting the inside ski from the snow. An early and complete weight transfer allows the skier to completely lift the new inside ski from the snow immediately after turn initiation.
Task Criteria:
- The inside ski must be completely off the snow throughout the turn.
- The skier should not rely on their poles, particularly the inside pole, to maintain balance.
Skill Focus:
- Fore/aft & Lateral alignment (balance).

4. Skating (Performed on flats or a slight uphill)
Skating on skis is very similar to skating on ice skates or roller blades. The skis are in a “V” formation, which allows forward propulsion to be generated by pushing off an edged ski. Pole use should also aid in propulsion and rhythm.
Task Criteria:
- The upper body, or core, maintains a forward body position.
- Forward motion must occur.
- There is weight transfer from ski to ski, which allows the skier to balance while gliding.
Skill Focus:
- Directed movement (balance) from a platform is crucial, as is the ability to fluidly release and re-engage the edges (edging).

5. Leapers (Performed on groomed green or groomed blue terrain)
At the transition between turns the skier “leaps” in the air with a purposeful up un-weighting move. During landing, flexion is used to regulate the resultant pressure, and a controlled parallel turn is completed. A series of 10 or more may be required.
Task Criteria:
- The skis must be parallel throughout the maneuver.
- Up un-weighting is used to get both skis off the snow. The up un-weighting movement is done from an edged platform.
- Edge change occurs when the skis are in the air.

Skill Focus:
- Demonstration of properly directed movement in conjunction with pressure management (pressure).

6. Side Slips with Turns in a Corridor (Performed on groomed blue terrain)
With skis directly across the fall line, the skier releases the edges and slips approximately 3 meters down the fall line while keeping the skis perpendicular to the fall line. At this point the skier makes a short, pivoted turn and then sideslips down the hill facing the other direction. This is repeated after another ~3 meter side-slip (Corridor width TBD by exam team). A pole swing and touch should compliment the skiing movements.
Task Criteria:
- The corridor must be maintained.
- The skis must be parallel throughout the maneuver.
- A pole touch is required.
Skill Focus:
- Leg steering independent of upper body (rotary).

7. Ski without Poles (Performed on blue terrain)
No pole skiing and all turn sizes and types of terrain and conditions can be used.
Task Criteria:
- The skier is not adversely affected while skiing without poles.
- The ski poles are left behind in a safe place.
Skill Focus:
- Balance (See the Basic Movements of Functional Skiing).

8. Railroad Tracks (Performed on green terrain)
The skier performs shallow arced turns (the radius is mostly dictated by the ski’s sidecut).
Task Criteria:
- The tails of both skis completely follow the path of the tips. This translates into no skidding.
- Progressive tipping movements create the edge angle.
- Edging movements that originate in the feet and move up to the knees and hips.
Skill Focus:
- Progressive edging
Mike 目前離線   回覆時引用此篇文章
舊 2011-05-29, 20:12   #15
Mike
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PSIA Level 3

PSIA Level 3 Development and Assessment Tasks:

Level 3 Tasks:
1. Javelin Turns ( Performed on green terrain)
The skier performs outside ski turns while completely lifting the inside ski from the snow. The elevated ski maintains a direction down the fall line while the outside ski is steered underneath through the finishing phase of the turn. This results in a balanced and aligned counter relationship in the finishing phase.
Task Criteria:
- The inside ski is lifted off the snow at or before the edge change to the new outside ski.
- The inside ski is deliberately placed back on the snow at the end of the finishing phase of the turn.
- Active leg steering through finishing phase results in upper/lower body separation.
Skill Focus:
- Body alignment (Balance).


2. Pivot Slips (Performed on groomed blue terrain)
With skis directly across the fall-line, the skier releases the edges and slips down the fall-line maintaining the skis across the fall-line. Within a couple of meters the skier pivots (foot steers) the skis 180 degrees. The skier then repeats the maneuver with minimal distance between pivots. The exact terrain, distance, pole touch, and/or number of pivots to be determined by the Exam Team.
Task Criteria:
- Corridor must be maintained without stopping.
- The center of mass travels directly down the hill.
- The skis are parallel throughout the maneuver.
- Directional movement is timed with a pole swing.
Skill Focus:
- Leg steering independent of upper body (rotary).

3. Hop Turns (Any and all terrain is fair game)
From a platform formed by both skis, the skier uses an up movement to bring both skis off the ground. While in the air the skier simultaneously turns both skis across the fall-line and lands. Pressure is managed which sets the skier up to repeat. A pole touch is timed with the landing, creating a constant swinging of the poles.
Task Criteria:
- The skis are parallel throughout.
- The pole touch is timed with the landing and it stabilizes the upper body for steering.
- Two clean (non-skidded) tracks are left with each repetition.
- Steering must be completed prior to contact with the snow.
Skill Focus:
- Accurate flexion and extension movements (pressure control).

4. Short Swing Turns (Performed on groomed blue or groomed black terrain)
The skier creates a short radius turn with a check through the finish phase. The amount of edge set to form the check is determined by the steepness of the terrain. The skier times the pole touch with the edge “set.”
Task Criteria:
- Snow must be thrown from the skis in a downhill direction.
Skill Focus:
- Timing and intensity of edging movements (edging).

5. Charleston (Performed on groomed green or groomed blue terrain)
The skier performs a series of short radius turns on the inside ski while keeping the outside ski off snow. The skier uses a pole touch, and it is timed with the edge change. Inside leg steering is used to create a round turn.
Task Criteria:
- Outside edge to outside edge.
- Pole touch timed with edge change.
Skill Focus:
- Accurate and directed pressure control movements (pressure).

6. Single Ski Turns (Performed on groomed blue terrain)
The skier performs a series of turns on one foot only. A pole touch is required, and the skier may be asked to perform the maneuver on either or both feet.
Task Criteria:
- The turns must be linked.
- The turns must be of consistent shape.
Skill Focus:
- Balance (see the basic movements of functional skiing).

7. Delayed Weight Transfer Turns (Performed on any groomed terrain)
The outside ski is lifted off the snow during the first half of every turn (the initiation and ½ of the shaping
phase). The outside leg is extended to set the ski back on the snow near the apex of the turn.
Task Criteria:
- The new outside ski is lifted off the snow before the edge change keeping the body weight over the
new inside ski which delays the weight transfer to the outside ski.
- The turn is initiated on a flexed inside leg and the skier moves both laterally and forward through the
boot cuff.
- Continual flow is achieved through pressure management during lateral weight transfer.
Skill Focus:
- Directional movement (balance).

8. Funnel or Rhythm Changes (Performed on Blue terrain)
The skier links a series of turns that change radius as per the direction of the Exam Team.
Examples include:
Start with large radius turns and progress smoothly through medium radius to short.
Perform four short radius turns followed by four medium radius turns and repeat...
During these demonstrations the skier will use an appropriate pole swing and touch, while being tactical in the transitions from turn type to turn type.
Task Criteria:
- The basic movements of functional skiing are evident throughout (skill blending).
Skill Focus:
- Timing and intensity of edging movements (edging).

9. Ski without Poles (Performed on black terrain)
No pole skiing and all turn sizes and types of terrain and conditions can be used. (for example bumps crud, powder, wind buff, corn, slush, coral reef, breakable crust, etc.)
Task Criteria:
- The skier is not adversely affected while skiing without poles.
- The ski poles are left behind in a safe place.
Skill Focus:
- Balance (see the basic movements of functional skiing).

10. Arcing (Performed on groomed blue terrain)
The definition of arcing is a purely carved turn.
Task Criteria:
- The tails of both skis completely follow the path of the tips. This translates into no skidding.
- The skier moved progressively throughout the turn.
- Both skis are actively pressured to bend them into an arc.
Skill Focus:
- Accurate edging movements
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